Monday, May 29, 2006

Men Serve NOT For the Benefit of Government..

Serving, dying, or coming close to death is not an honor we give to our government...



It is an Honor we give to All Children to have a Chance To Live Tomorrow. The Children are the Reason Why all men serve all nations.


Remembering Across The Years

They Serve Because they believe it is the Right thing to do:








Black Soldiers serving in the Civil War


381st Bomb Group WWII


Nat Nadler, served as Electrician on the ship: Exodus commissioned by the U.S. to transport "illegal" immigrants to Israel and help them settle in their homeland after the Holocaust. The ship, Exodus, was an old, rickety cargo ship used only to transport goods up the inland rivers in the U.S. It had never been to sea until this mission. Nat Nadler knows why he served.





Friday, May 26, 2006

Interwar Period ... Between WWI and WWII



Map of Europe in 1914 at Start of WWI and After

WWI came to an end on November 17,1918. And, the entire world was in a mess!

Czar Nicholas' Prussian troops had conquered and slain the invading Germanic warriors.

The British with the help of the Arabs and Jews in Palestine, had conquered Iraq, Cairo, and Jerusalem overtaking the Germans in the Holy Land.

America had help free Belgium, France, Spain and Italy.

Russia had retaken Mongolia, Serbia, and made a new alliance with Japan.

The Arabs had made a new alliance with many of the European nations and to their dismay the agreements were not kept. But, their alliance with Germany in WWI, and with France would be a foundation block for the future of the desired Muslim world.

The People Without a Nation had been justified and in 1919 Britain mandated that Jerusalem and "part" of the land of Judea would be for the Jewish Homeland and would eventually become the Nation of Israel. However, Britain did not specify when this would happen or under what conditions.

In Ireland, the desire for a separate nation of their own without British rule had gained ground by 1916 and was ready to take an active part in fighting off British rule by 1919.

Communists and Marxists and Stalinists were fighting for control of Russia and Czar Nicholas II got the brunt of that argument.

The Jewish people throughout Europe had fought for the Armies of the lands in which they resided and fought well.


Some assimilation was rapidly taking place throughout the lands of Europe as the Jews wanted to take part in being citizens.

For the first time, Jews were starting to take an active political stance that would involve their residential homes or their Home in Jerusalem in the future.

Jewish leaders were emerging in the religious communities and developing organizations to protect, defend, and demand rights to return to the land of Israel.

Jewishness (the lifestyle) was changing the way in which they would live and the jobs they would be allowed. They were beginning to act like "citizens" of the states instead of "guests" at the mercy of the states.

Jews in significant numbers were either becoming "religiously nonactive", "economically socialist" "politically Zionist", or "supportive of communists". Still, the majority preferred to remain as invisible as possible and live in their communities quietly as religious people.

So often, people ask "Why would the German people go along with Nazism?" Perhaps, these notes from the American Ambassador to Germany in 1916 had made some insightful and valid observations that were typical of the German people and of Hitler's national pride as well:


The German soul, indeed, seems to turn not towards light and gay and graceful things, but towards bloodshed and grewsomeness, ghosts and mystery---effect doubtless of the long, dark, bitter nights and gray days that overshadow these northern lands.

I think the only time I lost my temper in Germany was when a seemingly reasonable and polite gentleman from the Foreign Office sitting by my desk one day, in 1916, remarked how splendid it was that Germany had nearly two million prisoners of war and that these would go back to their homes imbued with an intense admiration of German Kultur.

I said that I believed that the two million prisoners of war who had been insulted and underfed and beaten and forced to work as slaves in factories and mines and on farms would go back to their homes with such a hatred of all things German that it would not be safe for Germans to travel in countries from which these prisoners came, that other nations had their own Kultur with which they were perfectly satisfied and which they did not wish to change for any made-in-Germany brand!

America on the Plight of Jews in Europe:
Washington Post
Date: Oct 21, 1920
PLEADS FOR JEWS IN EUROPE


Palestine National Assembly Addresses Statement to League.

Before closing its sessions in Jerusalem, the Jewish national assembbly, of Palestine, decided to issue to the world at large and to the league of nations in particular an appeal that the Jews of Poland, the Ukraine, Galicia and Hungary be saved from further pogroms

The Washington Post - Washington, D.C.


Obviously, the government of the U.S. was sufficiently aware of the Pogroms against the Jews in Europe after WWI to issue a statement to that effect. However, sadly, the U.S. government in each succeeding administration has chosen to ignore the problem even though it continues to this day.

Wednesday, May 24, 2006

Historical Familiarities from 1916

The war in Europe was not as immediately important in Washington as protecting the Southern Borders of the United States. [Imagine that!]

June 17 U.S. troops under Gen Pershing march into Mexico

Between the fall of 1910 and the summer of 1916, Mexico had been embroiled in a violent revolution with opposing political and military forces struggling for control of the country. In 1913, United States President William Howard Taft sent a large military force into Texas and stationed them along the Rio Grande to protect Americans in the region.

This show of American military force caused Mexican militants to redirect their violence from their own countrymen to Americans.
An increasing number of border incidents early in 1916 culminated in an invasion of American territory on 8 March, when Villa and his band of 500 to 1,000 men raided Columbus, New Mexico.

Immediate steps were taken to organize a punitive expedition of about 10,000 men under Brig. Gen. Pershing to capture Villa
.

June 21 Mexican troops beat U.S. expeditionary force under Gen Pershing


There were many clashes with Mexican Army units; the most serious was on 21 June 1916 at Carrizal, where a detachment of the 10th Cavalry was nearly destroyed.


The presence of U.S. troops on the border was a constant drain on resources and cost American taxpayers hundreds of thousands of dollars per day. As a result, on January 27, 1917, President Wilson ordered their withdrawal.


However, with the escalation of World War One in Europe, the United States Army and National Guard would soon be redirected to the battlefields of France. Normal relations with Mexico were restored eventually by diplomatic negotiation, and the troops were withdrawn from Mexico in February 1917.

Muslim World


Muslims had to this point in their own history been known as politically conservative and right of center. But, the concepts of socialism aka Marxism started merging with the Islamic world view in many areas. Sarekat Islam had established a firm footing in Indonesia by 1913 in response to poverty and by 1916 had become more internationally accepted.

June 17 1st national congress of Sarekat Islam at Bandoeng Java

I think the key historical example is Sarekat Islam (Islamic League), founded in the Dutch East Indies in 1911 as an association of batik traders with an Islamist basis, but which soon developed into an anti-colonial mass movement of workers and urban and rural poor, including leading the territory's first trade unions.

It had a mass left wing, developed particularly by the decision of the Marxists of the small Indonesian Social Democratic Association to enter SI in about 1916.

There were lots of debates around the relationship of Islam, socialism, national liberation and pan-Islamism, with even the right wing advocating a form of Islamic socialism after the 1917 Russian revolution.

Eventually, Islam and a revolutionary socialist organisation became considered incompatible, but the socialists were correct to orient to a mass movement originally inspired by Islam, in which many activists must have been both devout and in favour of socialism.

Later, there were more extremely violent relations between Indonesian Islamists and Communists especially culminating in WWII and into the 1970s.

Though (1980s and 1990s) Suharto Islamic organisations mainly stood politically for liberal democratic change.


Jewish Affairs in Israel (then called Palestine)

The Washington Post - Washington, D.C.
Date: Jun 22, 1916
COMMENT ON PASSING EVENTS HEARD IN WASHINGTON HOTELS
"Without shoes and scarcely covering for the body, the Jews of Palestine, are suffering more than the people of the war-ravaged countries of Europe," declared Dr. Benzion Mossinsohn, formerly director of the College Gymnasia Jbrith at Jaffa, Palestine, at the Raleigh.

Dr. Mossinsohn is in America to interest the Jews of the country in the Zionist movement and to direct attention to conditions in his country.

1916 The Future Concepts Gaining Roots

The National Socialist Party
The future German Nazi Party [NSDAP] had not formed in Germany yet but the concepts and formation elements that would make it socially acceptable did take root in Britain, Ireland, and France. Keep in mind I said "concepts and elements".

The National Socialist Party was a small political party in the United Kingdom, founded in 1916.


In the British Version of the NSP, the term "national socialism" carried none of its present-day right-wing connotations. The British NSP had broadly leftist policies while the Nazi Party of Germany adopted the same programs with a rightest policy interpretation.

Czech National Social Party
The party platform was a programme of "collectivizing by means of development, surmounting of class struggle by national discipline, moral rebirth and democracy as the conditions of socialism, a powerful popular army, etc."

Hitler
Hitler's life was traced back after the demise of Germany in WWII and it was discovered that he was in Munich at the break out of the First World War. Although in spite of being an Austrian-Hungarian citizen by birth, he served in the German Army throughout the war.

For most of the war he served as a runner, and served at the front line in Flanders (Belgium) and in France. He displayed courage under fire and was awarded the Iron Cross Second Class.
He was sent home in 1916 when he was wounded but returned to fighting in 1917.

Laws and Organizations that focused on Children
In the middle of a raging war in Europe, the American climate was focused not on the needs of men and women in Europe, but on the needs of women, the underpriviledged immigrants, and children. 1916 spearheaded the concepts of a broader belief that children had both "rights" and needs outside of the desires and wishes of their individual parents.

June 15 Boys Scouts of America forms
President Woodrow Wilson signed on June 15, 1916. It reads:
That the purpose of this corporation shall be to promote, through organization and cooperation with other agencies, the ability of boys to do things for themselves and others, to train them in Scoutcraft, and to teach them patriotism, courage, self-reliance, and kindred virtues, using the methods which are now in common use by Boy Scouts.

1916 Child Labor Law Passed -

Jane Addams founder of Hull House in Chicago, Illinois played a prominent part in the formation of the National Progressive Movement. In 1912, when Theodore Roosevelt ran for President of the United States, Addams empathically declared her support for his progressive ideas.

Jane believed that they way to change the social atmosphere in the United States was to lobby the government for laws that would promote better education for children.

In 1907 the NCLC was granted a charter from Congress. A year later the committee hired Lewis Hine. He was a teacher who was hired to research the ills of the child labor industry.

Hine traveled and photographed pictures of the exploitation of children in the work force. When his work was published, the pictures made a major impact on the American conscience.


1916, that we see the involvement of the Supreme Court. During this year Congress passed the first child labor bill, Keating-Owen Act.

This act banned the sale of any article produced by child labor (factory, cannery, and mine) and it regulated the number of hours a child could work.

The Keating-Owen Act was passed in 1916 under the Woodrow Wilson’s administration. Many progressives and republicans embraced his efforts.

Two years later the Supreme Court declared the Keating-Owen Act unconstitutional. The Supreme Court stated that on legal grounds Congress was using its power to go beyond its right to regulate interstate trade.

Baseball was an important preoccupation with Americans.

June 16 Boston Brave's Tom Hughes 2nd no-hitter beats Pitts, 2-0
June 18 Yanks score in every inning but 8th beat Indians 19-3
June 21 Boston Rube Forster no-hits New York Yankees, 2-0
June 26 Cleveland Indians experiment with #s on their jerseys (one game)

1916 The Basis of Middle East International Policies are Formed

By WWI, assimilation to the culture of the country in which they were living had accelerated and interfaith marriages had also become known.

Many Jewish people did not and do not today participate in the religious aspects of Judaism. Many, unfortunately, don't know anything about the religion.

In Germany, a new form Orthodox Judaism was being formed. Reformed and Conservative Judaism [modifications of Orthodox] were becoming more popular among Jewish people around the globe.

  • May 31 British battle cruiser Invincible explodes, killing all but 6
  • June 1 German attack on Fort Vaux, Verdun

1916 Battle of Verdun--The battle began in February, when the Germans had amassed 1,400 guns. The Germans made a determined attempt to break through and made some headway.

However, the Germans were finally stopped, in a grinding battle that lasted until June. The French lost an estimated 350,000 troops in the battle.

  • June 2 German troops under Lt Rackow take Fort Vaux
  • June 3 National Defense Act establishes ROTC
  • June 4 Russian General Brusilov fails on his Eastern Front attack
  • June 6 Voters in East Cleveland approves women suffrage
  • June 7 Germany troop march into Fort Faux, Verdun
  • June 10 48th Belmont: E Haynes aboard Friar Rock wins in 2:22
  • June 10 Great Arab Revolt begin

The Arab Revolt (1916–1918) was initiated by the Sherif Hussein ibn Ali with the aim of securing independence from the ruling Ottoman Turks and creating a single unified Arab state spanning from Aleppo in Syria to Aden in Yemen.

[ ]

This "single unified state was part of the alliance agreement made with Britian and France. However, at the end of WWI, this was not honored and the Arab world is still bringing this up in negotiations and using it to justify their actions in diplomatic realms.

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This revolt was set in motion by the coup in 1908 in which the Turkish nationalist reform party Young Turks seized power from the old Sultan Hamid II. Ottoman politics changed and discrimination against non-Turkish inhabitants increased.

Many Arab nationalist figures in Damascus and Beirut were arrested, then tortured and executed by the Ottomans.

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This becomes an important rationale for the Arab participation in WWII.

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The Arabs were also threatened by the construction of the Hejaz railway, which helped move Turkish troops deep into Arab areas (the railway was actually finished under the old Sultan, but its effects became more noticeable under the CUP government).

Because of these reasons, Sherif Hussein, as the head of the Arab nationalists, entered into an alliance with the United Kingdom and France against the Ottomans around June 8, 1916 (the actual date is a bit uncertain).

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An alliance which in WWII and since, becomes the grounding influence and policy decisions of International relations between Europe, America and the Middle East.

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The Arab forces were led by his sons Abdullah and Faisal.

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Faisal becomes King of Saudi Arabia and Abdullah becomes the King of Jordan after WWII.

[]

The British government in Egypt immediately sent a young officer to work with the Arabs, this man was Captain T.E. Lawrence, known now as Lawrence of Arabia.

The Reading: Zechariah Chapter 4

1 The angel who talked with me came back and woke me as a man is wakened from sleep. 2 He said to me, "What do you see?" And I answered, "I see a lampstand all of gold, with a bowl above it. The lamps on it are seven in number, and the lamps above it have seven pipes; 3 and by it are two olive trees, one on the right of the bowl and one on its left." 4 I, in turn, asked the angel who talked with me, "What do those things mean, my lord?" 5 "Do you not know what those things mean?" asked the angel who talked with me; and I said, "No, my lord." 6 Then he explained to me as follows: "This is the word of the Lord to Zerubbabel: Not by might, nor by power, but by My spirit--said the Lord of Hosts. 7 Whoever you are, O great mountain in the path of Zerubbabel, turn into level ground! For he shall produce that excellent stone; it shall be greeted with shouts of 'Beautiful! Beautiful!'"

[ ]

Sherif Hussein and it is the Hussein family that rules in Syria, Jordan, Saudi today and is very influential in Iraqi, Egyptian, and Palestinian internal policies and international politics.

From this same family, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem [who will become a major player in the Nazi regime] will spring onto the scene, be convicted by the War Crimes Tribunal and never forced to serve a day of his sentence. The Grand Mufti is the conceptual grandfather of what today is called the Hamas in Palestine.

1916 April

World War I is raging. The economy world-wide is plummeting. Food, clothes, wood, coal, and medicines are already getting scarcer by the day. International shipping lanes are being targeted to prevent supplies from finding their way to the enemy lands.

In those nations that are involved in active combat, the land is being destroyed with bombs, mustard gas, and other poison gases. Men are being blown apart with arms and legs separated from bodies and shredded by the blasts of hand grenades, mines, guns and howitzer fighting.

Towns and cities are filled with debris, dust and remnants of fires.

All are weary of the fighting. All are sickened by the war. All are tired of the sleepless nights and stench of death. Women, children, elderly and the maimed are all vulnerable to disease and death.

And, it is only 1916. Little do they realize that they will have another 2 years to wait for the silence of peace.

At four minutes past noon on Easter Monday, April 24th, 1916, a sudden hush fell over the O’Connell Street.

1916 Easter Rising in Ireland-(4/24/16)An uprising by Irish Nationals in Dublin began when Irish Nationalists seized post offices and other installations. The Nationalists received logistic support from the Germans, who refused to invade.

Padhraic Pearse, the nationalist leader, was captured. [He was later killed by firing squad.]

Blood sacrifice
The members of the Irish Republican Brotherhood Military Council which planned the Rising were each at least partially influenced by the idea of a ‘blood sacrifice’.

The Council’s members were convinced that Ireland’s national spirit – its sense of itself as a distinct nation with a right to independence – was fading.

In these circumstances, they believed that through their own death and martyrdom, militant Irish nationalism would be revived; this would enable their successors to wage ultimately a successful war against British rule and achieve full national independence.

For Pearse, the idea of a blood sacrifice had additional appeal.
[ snip]
This concept of "blood sacrifice" was and is intimately connected with the concept of Jesus on the Cross. This is a NON-Jewish belief. Yet, the Christian churches attempt repeatedly to connect Jesus on the Cross as a sacrifice to replace the "blood sacrifice" in the Jewish Temple rites and as a "sin" offering.

In actuality, the "sin" offering is the prayer, repentence, righting the particular "wrong" that was the "sin" and then, the Offering is a renewal of the covenant promise by an individual with G-d. The animal that was killed, was then cooked and eaten. This was not a moribund act but the act of "waste not, want not" in attitude.

But, it is this same concept of "blood sacrifice" that we will see again expressed in a slightly different way by the Nazi's.
[ ]

Even as a child, he had unusual fantasies of self-sacrifice for his country, derived from Celtic myths and religious writings.

He later fused together his nationalism and his Catholic faith.
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This is, also, to be repeated by all of Europe and even in America where Nationalism is fused with Christian concepts and justifies the acts of war, violence, and killing of others for various reasons.

I am not saying that there are not times that a death penalty are in keeping with the Laws of G-d; but, rarely are the Laws of G-d obeyed when a society or culture or government choose to kill any given collection of it's citizens.
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His Christian devotion had always centred on Christ’s Passion and Crucifixion, and he gradually developed a consuming yearning for martyrdom, in conscious emulation of Christ’s sacrifice on the cross.

He wrote: ‘One man can free a people, as one man redeemed the world’.

Pearse was also influenced by a mystical belief in the assumed benefit to mankind of blood spilt in violent conflict.

Such ideas were then widespread in Europe with roots in contemporary philosophy, science and economics.


The dominant artistic group in Italy glorified war, describing it as ‘the world’s only hygiene’.

The German Chancellor, at the outbreak of World War I, stated that the war was at first regarded as appropriate and regenerative.

The Haftorah that day for the Jewish people begins:
II Samuel Chapter 6

1 David again assembled all the picked men of Israel, thirty thousand strong. 2 Then David and all the troops that were with him set out from Baalim of Judah to bring up from there the Ark of G-d to which the Name was attached, the name Lord of Hosts Enthroned on the Cherubim.